AN ENVIRONMENT RICH IN BIODIVERSITY

The Grumento Nova territory, nestled in the protected area of the Lucanian Apennine National Park and in the heart of the upper Agri Valley, holds unforgettable places, surrounded by greenery, modeled by water, melting pot of history and knowledge, ancestral events and traditions.
The Grumento Nova territory, surrounded by the crown of mountains of the sub southern Apennines - Volturino - Caldarosa - Viggiano - Raparo - Sirino - offers wide openings and clearings dotted with blooms of poppies and daisies, broom, fragrant lavender, but also sage, rosemary and thyme.
The natural environment is the backdrop to the countless works of man, works from a remote past, starting from the archaeological area of the ancient Grumentum.
In the natural itinerary, in the SIC and SPA areas of the wonderful Maglie forest, there is the lake of Pietra del Pertusillo, now fully integrated with the surrounding environment so as to have become a resting and breeding area for many species of birds (herons, grebes, egrets, kites, white stork), as well as for the otter.
Furthermore, in the area of the lake and along the course of the rivers, there is the Otter which has the largest distribution area in Italy in the Park, which extends over the average Agri valley for over 2000 hectares and has become an important stop and a breeding place for some migrant bird species.
The Agri river runs through the entire territory to give life to the reservoir of the Pertusillo, where it crosses the Sciaura river, to which it is added to follow the Maglie river, and is accompanied along its course by thermophilic woods with Quercuspubescens enriched with mesophilic essences such as Fraxinusornus and Black hornbeam (Ostryacarpinifolia). In the river bed, black alder (Alnus cordata), black poplar (Populusnigra), various species of willows (Salixspp) are common.
In the hilly belt up to 500 m dominates the Mediterranean vegetation that encloses the horizon of the heliophilous broadleaf trees, dominated by the Holm oak. In relation to altitude and exposure, the holm oak gives way to mixed populations of Turkey oak and downy oak, often accompanied by other deciduous species such as Quercusfraineto, Acer obtusatum, Fraxinusornus, Alnus cordata, Ostryacarpinifolia and Castanea sativa, the Sorbustorminalis and rowan bird (Sorbusaucuparia). Among the shrubs frequent is the butcher's broom, the wild asparagus, the hawthorn, the privet, the dogwood. Environmental variability is reflected in a good fauna diversity. Aquatic ecosystems are rich in amphibians and crustaceans. Among the Amphibians, it is worth mentioning the widespread presence of the Italian newt (Lissotritonitalicus), the yellow-bellied Ululone (Bombinapachypus) and the spectacled Salamander (Salamandrina tergiditata). The most important crustaceans are: crab (Potamonfluvialisfluvialis) and shrimp (Austropotamobiuspallipes); the latter, among other things, represents an important indicator of water quality. These crustaceans together with the rich Ichthyofauna present in Lake Pertusillo constitute an important aquatic community and represent an indispensable food source for rare and significant species such as the otter (Lutralutra). Along with cyprinids such as chub (Leuciscuscephalus) and Rovella (Rutileusrubio), both brown trout (Salmo truttafario) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss), bleak (Alburnusalburnus alborella), carp (Cyprinus) are present in the lake waters carpio) and many other species. Rivers and humid environments also represent the ideal environment for various species of birds that frequent inland waters, some of which are migratory, such as the black stork (Ciconia nigra) which is a nesting species or the white stork (Ciconia ciconia). Always among waders are frequenters of the lake and marshes: the great white heron (Egretta alba), the red heron (Ardea purpurea) and the most common gray heron (Ardea cinerea); species such as the little egret (Egretta garzetta), the spoonbill (Platalealeucorodia) and the cavalier of Italy (Himantopushimantopus) are easily spotted as well as the night heron (Nycticoraxnycticorax). Another noteworthy presence is that of the Egyptian vulture (Neophronpercnopterus). The open environments and over 1500 meters are the domain of the large birds of prey that have seen the return of erratic individuals of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the permanent presence of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and the imperial crow (Corvuscorax) for some years . A little further down, in the old woods, the presence of the eagle owl (Bubo bubo) is also reported, while in the hilly areas the kite (Milvusmilvus) and the buzzard (Buteobuteo) are particularly abundant. In humid environments it is possible to spot the black kite (Milvusmigrans) and the marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus). Among the reptiles are the water tortoise (Hemysorbicularis) and the rare earth Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni). Among the large snakes it is frequent to meet the cervone (Elaphequatuorlineata) and the saettone (Zamenislineatus) and it is not uncommon to run into the viper (Vipera aspis), frequenter of warmer and arid environments. The great variety of terrestrial environments are the kingdom of numerous species of small and rare carnivorous mammals such as the polecat (Mustela puteorius) and the wild cat (Felissilvestris). The Wolf (Canis lupus) is undoubtedly the terrestrial predator at the top of the food pyramid which sees among its favorite preys the wild boar (Sus scrofa), very abundant in the area. The foothills are the elective environments of the European hare (Lepuscapensis) which is the prey of the much more common fox (Vulpesvulpes).